Friday, March 13, 2020

Scarlet Letter Essay Example

Scarlet Letter Essay Example Scarlet Letter Essay Scarlet Letter Essay Essay Topic: The Scarlet Letter English – Mp 3 Pd 7 December 22, 2009 Scarlet Letter Essay The Scarlett Letter displays a moral lesson to all its readers. The character, Reverend Dimmesdale commits the sin of adultery and throughout the book goes through a struggle within himself. Chapter 12: The Ministers Vigil and Chapter 20: The Minister in a Maze show this struggle within Dimmesdale through similar and different dealings. Chapter 12 is when the ministers own subconscious takes control of his action and he goes to the scaffold at night as an indirect way of confessing his sin and guilt. In chapter 20, the minister has various thoughts that are not in his nature, like in chapter 12 it wouldnt be in the ministers own nature to go to the scaffold. In both chapters there are various mental activities that can explain this. In chapter 12 of the Scarlet Letter, the minister goes to the scaffold at night subconsciously. Dimmesdale is not capable of confessing his sin, so his subconscious tries to relieve the conflict he has between his lack of will to confess and his puritan conscious. Walking in the shadow of a dream, as it were and perhaps actually under the influence of a type of somnambulism, Mr. Dimmesdale reached the spite where, now so long since, Hester Prynne had lived through her first hours of public ignominy. Hawthorne through this sentence explains that the minister is sleep walking to the scaffold. It is not in his own conscious control and his subconscious is making the minister do this. In his mind, he can no longer take the guilt, but yet he cant confess, so his subconscious takes control to help relieve the conflict by trying to make Dimmesdale confess. His Puritan conscious is a strong part of Dimmesdale, unlike in later chapters. After chapter 17, when Dimmesdale agreed to a deliberate sin, his Puritan conscious felt betrayed and left behind. Now without his own Puritan conscious in his mind, Dimmesdale is tempted to do many wicked things. His mind no longer has a protection to the temptations of sin. He believes himself to have made a pact with Satan, he is aware of the situation in his mind where he is tempted to sin. At every step he was incited to do some strange, wild, wicked thing or other, with a sense that it would be at once involuntary and intentional; in spite of himself, yet growing out of a profounder self than that which opposed the impulse. This quote shows that Dimmesdale was haunted by the impulses of sin, that it would soon grow involuntary and intentional and that he has lost his Puritan conscious, which was the driving force for opposing the temptations of sin. Both chapters show a mental state that Dimmesdale is in. Chapter 12 shows Dimmesdale own subconscious mind try to do what Dimmesda le cant don consciously, which is confess to his sin and guilt. In chapter 20, Dimmesdales mind is haunted by the impulses to commit wicked sins. Dimmesdale is aware of his mental state in chapter 20, unlike in chapter 12 where his subconscious was in control. That is a difference between chapter 12 and 20, in one chapter the minister is unaware of the events, in the other he is fully aware. Even counting this difference, both chapters are similar with the terms that they both deal with the ministers mental state, that of conflict between lack of will and his Puritan conscious as in chapter 12, or that in which the ministers mind has lost his Puritan conscious and is tempted to commit sin, as in chapter 20.

Tuesday, February 25, 2020

Compare and contrast high involvement and low involvement processing Essay

Compare and contrast high involvement and low involvement processing. Discuss how and when consumers go through these different - Essay Example What is Consumer Involvement? The study of decision-making behavior reflected by the customers is known as the customer involvement. The buying pattern of consumers varies from product to product based on the perception of consumers towards a product pertaining to its importance or relevance for the customer. In this manner, the study of purchasing behavior of customers enables businesses to understand the level of involvement each consumer has towards a product or service. The literature for consumer behavior is not considered in the modern business world as complete, without discussing customers’ involvement. For this reason, marketers have carried out extensive research in the area and have asserted that for understanding involvement, it is also important to consider the socio-psychological aspects as well. Although, researchers and marketers have fallen short of prescribing a comprehensive definition for the term â€Å"involvement†, but Kapferer and Laurent (1985) h ave suggested that there are five types of involvements. First level of involvement is for interest in the product, then involvement because of risk importance, risk probability, sign value or involvement due to hedonic value of the product. Other researchers like Schiffman and Kanuk (1991) perceives involvement as the reaction to ego’s call, perceived risk of the product or the importance of purchase of the product. Another perspective of consumer involvement is presented by Hansen (1981). He views involvement as: "Variations in the extent to which the individual is more or less motivated toward a specific piece of information, product, or the like. With high involvement, more psychic energy is released for handling incoming information, sorting it out, and making choices" (Hansen, 1981). The definition presented by Hansen (1981) is also supported by researchers like Mitchell (1981) who also suggested that consumers are motivated by businesses to commit high involvement in t he purchasing decision so that they can close study the product, its attributes and its benefits. Moreover, Hensen’s (1981) definition is also close to perfect as it defines involvement on the basis of motivation that a marketing strategy of a business produces amongst consumers. To summaries the various definitions of involvement found with the review of literature, it can be asserted that involvement refers to the degree of attraction and the level of individual experiences an individual feels towards a product at the time of making a purchasing decision. The next section of the report would discuss the most important aspect of marketing studies, i.e. consumer behavior and its relevance to consumer involvement. Consumer Behavior and Consumer Involvement Consumer behavior is a wide area of marketing studies, which deals with the understanding of patterns depicted by individual or group of customers towards a particular product or service. It consists of a purchasing process, which includes the selection of a product, securing the product, disposing the product and experiencing the performance of the product. Therefore; consumer behavior is the study of attitude shown by consumers while purchasing and using a product or service. The study of consumer behavior requires marketers and

Sunday, February 9, 2020

Visual Arts and Film Studies Tests. Changes in exhibition from the Assignment

Visual Arts and Film Studies Tests. Changes in exhibition from the early 1900s through the 1940s - Assignment Example Moreover, cinema of attraction is based on shock, spectacle, and sensation. According to Gunning, cinema of attraction greatly differs with the contemporary narrative cinema that solicits a voyeuristic spectatorial gaze. It is an early exhibition where the spectators become overtly acknowledged, and invited to look. What is the PCA? In order to regulate morality and politics within films, the PCA (Production Code Administration), patrolled major issues that came about in the movies, moral barricades and the politics involved in movie productions. The government decided that wartime movies were very delicate to be left to the moviemakers thus the PCA, the Office of War Information, policing morality, and guarding politics made sure that the American screen was tightly regulated like no any other time in history. The PCA and its associated groups worked towards improvement in the film content in outright falsifications in others and evasions. What is a â€Å"star vehicle†? A ‘star vehicle refers to a movie, television show, or a play fabricated mainly to enhance a star’s career. The main aim of a star vehicle revolves around promoting a performer with the anticipation of inducting a bankable star. For instance, a bankable star compels the spectators to watch either the television show, play or even the film since he/she is featured in the project. Any successful star vehicle portrays unique talents exhibited y the star being promoted. In addition, a star vehicle can be created to showcase a star shifting from one genre to another. In a star vehicle, the young or inexperienced actor signs a long-term contract with a major studio. However, in some cases, the actor may produce for himself or herself a vehicle thus resulting to a form of self-promotion (Lewis, 2002). d. What does Jane Feuer mean when she refers to the â€Å"dual diegesis† of the backstage musical? Modernist cinema in association wi th Hollywood musical, use dual in the world of films in order to reflect the relationship of the spectator to the film. Dual diegesis in this sense parallels the use of internal audience. In other cases, dual diegesis calls attention to the discrepancy between reality and fiction, or history and fiction. According to Jane, Hollywood musicals are built upon a base of dual registers with the contrast between number and narrative defining musical comedy as a form. In the backstage, musical dual levels are apparent in contrast between the show or film and the backstage plot within the film, between the world offstage and world onstage. e. How was the production of Casablanca affected by U.S. entry into World War II? Scholarly research depicts that one of the main argument was that the government collaborated with the Hollywood industry to use film as propaganda during the Second World War. Due to the stigma that surrounded Hollywood in the early 20’s, directors and actors were co nvicted of outrage that led to public accusation of immorality within the film industry. Moreover, the government worked directly with Hollywood by using its films as a powerful tool to enhance the war. It was during t5his period that Casablanca was greatly affected. These films displayed anti-Japanese propaganda, grim images, and the sacrifices made by the American soldiers. Even after the war, the films continued to portray skewed sights of the war with glorifying efforts made by the soldiers to show the sacrifices they made were quite worthwhile. 2. What changes in exhibition took place

Thursday, January 30, 2020

History of Database Essay Example for Free

History of Database Essay Storing data and files is an important aspect of business for various industries of the world. The storage of data in computers or database system is proven to be cost effective. Large or small database needs a system which will control the processes in the databases. Such applications are called database management systems (DBMS). From the time it was designed, the need for a good DBMS has increased because of the escalating number of data stored in the database. There are many available DBMS that private corporations use today. Indeed, database management systems have evolved due to the demand for the services that these systems provide. Database Management System A database management system is a collection of programs which enables the user or a network of users to mange files and data inside the database. The management includes storing, deleting, modifying, and extracting information from the database. It manages the request of the user and other programs installed in the computer or in the network. The DBMS ensures the integrity and reliability of the data. Some DBMS also provide security to the database (Tatum, 2003). There are many different forms of database management systems available in the market today because of the different private and public organizations or corporations which require different kinds of DBMS. However, there are four important elements that every DBMS have. These are the modeling language, data structures, data query language and mechanism that allows transactions (Tatum, 2003). The modeling language is the element that pertains to the approach used by the DBMS to communicate with the database. There are several approaches available today including hierarchical, relational, network and object-oriented (Christiansen, 2005). The hierarchical model makes use of pointers to navigate between stored data which is stored hierarchically in a downward tree. The structure is very inflexible in changing data and access requirements. The data is accessed by navigating from the root data to the data on the lower part of the hierarchy. In addition, the user should know the structure of the system before he or she can make an inquiry (Hsior, n. d. ). The network model is like the hierarchical model. It uses pointers to navigate through the data but it does not use a downward tree structure. It has limited flexibility in changing data and accessing requirements. Access to the data is accomplished by navigating through the structure and issuing specific statements to find specific data types in relation to the starting point of the structure (Hsior, n. d. ). In relational model, the data is stored in the two-dimensional tables. The data in the relational method is manipulated based on the relational theory of mathematics. The data types in this model are assigned with a symbolic primary key or foreign key construction. The referential integrity of the model is supported by the relational theory of mathematics. This model is very flexible to the data changes and access requirements. And the access to data types is based on relational algebra and relational calculus statements (Hsior, n. d. ). And lastly, the object-oriented model stores data as objects. This model is more direct than its predecessors since the design is very close to the real world model. The object-oriented model allows an easier way to maintain the database. The identification of objects is assigned by the system which protects the consistency of the data; while in the relational systems, it is assigned by the user. The database does not only store data but a whole application as well. Moreover, it can be executed inside the database. The concept of inheritance in this model makes code easily reusable. Furthermore, the object-oriented model is more practical and more economical (Hsior, n. d. ). The data structures are the elements that a DBMS manages inside the database. Different databases require different data structures which different DBMS manage. Data structures include individual records, files, fields and objects such as media files. DBMS need to define data structures to ensure the integrity of the data while it is being accessed. The data query language is the element which takes care of the security of the database. It monitors login data, assigns access rights and privileges, and defines the criteria for the add data function in the data base (Tatum, 2003). History The origin of database can be traced back to libraries, governments and other institutions that require storage of data. The DBMS was designed to ensure the integrity, security and accessibility of data. The design of the DBMS constantly evolves through time. It aims to create a design of which has better reliability and performance (Mann, 2003). In the 1800, Jose Marie Jacquard had created a machine, Jacquard Loom, which produced fabric from stored design from a punch card. The data of the design is stored in punch cards where holes represent the details in the design. In this way, the Jacquard Loom automatically designs the loom depending on the punch card in use (Tatum, 2003). Similar technology was used in the 1890 as Herman Hollerith created a mechanism that recorded information in a punch card which was coded numerically. The idea is that the data can punch in specific locations in the card, and then it can be counted and sorted automatically. This design was used by the US government to perform the census. Hollerith’s company solely produces the machine that records the data in the punch card and another machine that tabulates and sorts the cards. This company is renamed to IBM. The company prospered as it was able to produce machines that can record data for business and government institutions during 1910 towards 1960. The systems have records of every household and other data needed for the analysis of the society (Tatum, 2003). By 1955, many business and government institutions have floors dedicated for the storage of punched cards and floors for the machines. The machines work with punch-board which control accumulator registers that could reproduce punched cards or put data on paper. Some very large companies accumulate tons of data everyday that costs millions on storage. Thus, the need for a new technology has become very imminent (Tatum, 2003). In the 1960s, private organizations and corporations needed computers that have better storage capabilities and computers are proven to be cost effective against ordinary punch cards. In line with this, database administrators needed database management systems to cope with the increasing data storage capacity of computers and the increasing number of data being stored. The hierarchical and network model are the two main data models developed which were used in database management systems during the earlier years. They made use of pointers which was used to navigate through records. In these models, there were difficulties in adding another field in the higher level since it will require rewriting the scheme for access in the lower level data. In this system, the emphasis of the model was placed on the type of data to be processed and not the over all structure of the system. In addition, the user who will need access to the data should know the structure of the database before he can make a query for information (Vaughn, 2003). In the early 1970s, the Edgar F. Codd proposed a relational approach in manipulating data in the database. He published an article entitled A relational model of data for large shared data banks which became the foundation in the development of the relational database. The article showed a theory of how to store data in a rectangular or in two-dimensional tables and then use the theory of mathematical sets to operate on it. The relational databases represent the first implementation of the real database management system. Since then, the relation model had been the most popular or standard approach for database management systems (Vaughn, 2003). In the mid-70s, the theory of Codd on relational databases was put into research projects by several competing camps. During this time, the term Relational Database Management System or the RDBMS was coined. During these times, there are two main prototypes based on the relational were developed. These are the System R developed by the IBM and Ingres developed by the University of California at Berkeley. These two prototypes led to different kinds of DBMS. The two lines of DBMS created by the two prototypes used different query languages. IBM’s System R uses the Structured Query Language (SQL) and the UCB’s Ingres uses QUEL short for query language. Also in mid-1970s, Peter P. Chen proposed the Entity-Relationship Model for the database design which gave a new insight in the conceptual models of a database management system. This model gives the designer of the database management system a way to concentrate more on the use of data instead of its logical structure like other method does (Vaughn, 2003). In the early 1980s, the commercialization of the Relational Database Management System began to intensify due to the increasing demand of databases in corporations around the world. The higher demand was caused by the emerging business in the United States and other countries around the world. Another reason is that organizations and corporations had increasing number of data needed to be stored. Businesses rely on computers for their data storage thus a better database management system is needed to manage large databases that these businesses have. At the same time, many companies made some products which give individual users to maintain a small database in their own computer (Vaughn, 2003). In the rest of the 1980s, SQL had become the standard query language for many databases which was caused by the emergence of the local area network. The Oracle Corporation made the first commercial relational database. Moreover, the network and hierarchical models faded to the background. However, there are still others that use the network and hierarchical models (Vaughn, 2003). It was during the early 1990s when the industry of databases had a shakeout and there are only a few companies that survived for offering better products. The most important development on the computer industry was on application builders and programming languages. During these times, the prototype of the object-oriented database management system was introduced. The object-oriented DBMS is conceptualized to handle big and complex data that relational database management systems had a hard time to handle (Vaughn, 2003). In the mid-1990s, the influx of internet use revived the need for database industry. This demand came from internet servers in order to manipulate the large amounts of data which must be made accessible to internet users. Better security and reliability is also needed to protect the client-users and the information itself from corruption and tamper. As such, only a good database management system can provide this. In addition, the database industry during these times has reached the desktop computers in the users’ own homes. This provides desktop computer users to manage their own small database or access the large databases on the internet (Vaughn, 2003). In the late 1990s, the industry prospered in terms of internet sales and database tools. The e-commerce industry boomed since business transactions have been done online. The Online Transaction Processing and the Online Analytical Processing emerged (Vaughn, 2003). However, in the early 21st century, there has been a decline in the internet industry. Nonetheless, the database industry is still growing because the demand for a larger database and better DBMS is steadily growing. There are other interactive applications that emerged during these times. Three companies have dominated the database industry including Microsoft, Oracle and IBM (Vaughn, 2003). Nowadays, huge systems require a good way to manage and analyze data. These databases’ storage capacity for the data now reaches the terrabyte level. Such databases are science databases which hold genome projects, national security, and space exploration data. Shopping online is also one of the common practices today. Millions of buyers participate on this application, thus requiring a larger database and good handling abilities. There are researches today that is said to surpass the capabilities of the SQL. This development will ensure another significant growth in the database industry (Vaughn, 2003). Future Trends Mobile database is now emerging in various ways. This technology will secure a more remote access to database. Additionally, more and more people will access a single database at a time. As such, proper management is needed to ensure the continuous service and to prevent a system crush (Vaughn, 2003). Object-oriented database management system is predicted to dominate the database market as well as other computer markets. The emergence of the use of this model threatens to wipe other database models (Vaughn, 2003). As time goes by, there are certain issues that have risen alongside the creation of larger databases. Ethical issue is one of them; the larger the database is, the harder that people can efficiently manage it. Consequently, it is easier for perpetrators to subtly penetrate a system without being known by the administrators. In addition, some databases use automatic analyzing application which is sometimes unethical to use (Vaughn, 2003). Evidently, the database evolved from simple punched cards to huge mainframes. The advances in database technology have propelled the growing need for large data storage and management tools to access and analyze it. The database management system evolved as billions of information are generated by large business and government institutions everyday. The demand still grows as the internet community is still continuously growing. The future of database industry is very clear – it will continue to prosper and advance as the world continuously develops. References Christiansen, S. (2005). Database Management System. Retrieved April 10, 2009, from http://searchsqlserver. techtarget. com/sDefinition/0,,sid87_gci213669,00. html Hsior, J. (n. d. ). Evolution of Database Systems. Retrieved April 12, 2009, from http://w3. ocit. edu. tw/ben/foxpro6/article/english/ch01/page04. htm Mann, M. (2006). History and Comparison of Relational Database Management Systems. TechnoCircle HVB Information Services. Retrieved April 11, 2009, from http://www. guug. de/lokal/muenchen/2007-05-14/rdbmsc. pdf Tatum, M. (2003). What is DBMS? Retrieved April 10, 2009, from http://www. wisegeek. com/what-is-dbms. htm Vaughn, J. (2003). A short Database History. Hobart and William Smith Colleges. Retrieved April 12, 2009, from http://math. hws. edu/vaughn/cpsc/343/2003/history. html

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Life is Beautiful :: Personal Narrative Essays

Life is Beautiful I threw my hands into the air, fell back on Emily's bed, and covered my stressed eyes with the palms of my hands. Suddenly Emily turned out the lights and whispered "night-night" in a small voice as the door closed. She did it again. Just when I thought that I was the worst teacher in the world, torturing this sweet little girl with incomprehensible questions that she just wouldn't answer, she does something to show me that she does see me, she can hear me, and more importantly, she's responding to me. Sitting up, I think, "Oh Emily, I could just pick you up, hold you, and never make you work again. But you won't let me hold you. That is why we have to do this." Renewed, I was ready to start again. Emily is a six-year-old with autism. I met her in 1996 through a baby-sitting job. This was the first time I had ever taken care of a person with a disability. Although I was a little afraid, I was excited that I would be able to do this. Emily's autism causes her to learn more slowly than other children. She doesn't communicate or respond to the outside world as most children do. It is a rare social and emotional developmental disorder. For Emily, simple tasks, such as focusing on an object or idea, become difficult, aggravating, and sometimes impossible. This makes it very hard for Emily to play a board game with her sister because she doesn't understand about rolling dice or moving the pieces. A year after meeting Emily, her mother offered me another job through an organization called Respite. I would work exclusively with Emily to reinforce her communication and self-motivation skills, and in turn, help to take down the communication barrier. I would accomplish this by being both her friend and teacher: playing with her while prompting her to talk and respond. I've been doing Respite work with Emily for three years and it has been an incredible experience. Of course there were times when I would talk to her and she would just not respond the way I wanted her to. These instances of frustration are always made up for by the times when she progresses so fast and I just have to hug her. Although I know that with her degree of autism she will never fully overcome her disabilities, it is exhilarating to see how she has improved.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Heterosexual Marriage Essay

In our time we can see different sex marriages: homosexual and heterosexual, but which one is better for us. None of us would be in the world if we didn’t have a mother and father. God created a man and a woman as the top of his creativity. As they say a woman completes a man and a man completes a woman. This is openness to a new life, which implies a necessity of heterosexual union. In my opinion, the word marriage should only apply to a union between a man and a woman because this marriage is legal everywhere, they have the human procreation, and better raise them children. First of all, I think that union between man and woman is legal everywhere because it is not just in the government law and in religion too. In the world this marriage is legal in all countries, and acceptable in all religious movements. The state recognizes this relationship as a public institution in its laws because the relationship makes a unique and essential contribution to the common good. In some countries they do not recognize gay-marriage, just the union between female and male. For example, in Bible God said:† It is not good for man to be alone†, a man leaving his parents and being jointed to his wife. The Bible clearly identifies marriage as being between a man and a woman. The second thought is heterosexual marriage having the human procreation. The purpose of marriage is to procreation children, so same sex marriage comes down to the biology of the sex organs. For example, a man and woman can have a child, but a woman and a woman, or a man and a man cannot. Therefore, same-sex couples cannot procreate a new life; they cannot realize this basic function of marriage. The heterosexual have every opportunity to continue to race, and also a healthy way that is not bad for the child. The last important thought, that a union between a man and a woman can better raise a child. The marital union also, provides the best conditions for raising children: namely, the stable, loving relationship of a mother and a father present only in marriage. They will not confuse the child who he or she is. For example, father is always your child’s teacher; a mother also, gives more affection and love. If we combine these two thoughts together, the children will growth completely. So, I think that the kids need both parents: a father and a mother to grow in good family. I can say that the word marriage should only apply to a union between a man and a woman because this marriage is legal everywhere, they have the human procreation, and better raise them children. This marriage is the lifetime union of a man and a woman, primarily for the purpose of build a family and provide a stable environment for that family. This is assurances of the descendant’s family, duration of their family, and savings family’s tradition. This type of marriage suitable to the human more than any others, this gives more conditions continuation of human race, and can stay legal everywhere.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

How Friendship Can Not Be Defined Because No One - 1627 Words

Title? In this essay I will talk about how the term â€Å"friendship† cannot be defined because no one can judge other people’s personal value of what a friend is to them. Friendship is used in many contexts because of technology and how it is used from different levels of personal, formal, and informal meaning I believe that â€Å"friendship† can be on all three levels. The personal level is the friends who are intimate with you. The personal term for friendships is â€Å"intimacy†. The second level that I believe the â€Å"friendship† term can be easily used is the informal approach. The informal level categorizes the acquaintances and familiar people that a person knows, but is not that close with. For example, a worker knows his coworker, but is not that close as friends, but can establish a closer â€Å"friendship† if it is mutual, thus the word friendship can be placed here. The third level is the formal which means that complete strang ers are involved. Through technology, all three levels can be reached separately or together in stages of friendship. Although these are the stages, not one person can define a person’s personal value of what a true friend is. Although Sherry Turkle declares that, â€Å"Friendship is about letting something happen between two people that’s surprising and new†¦[Social Networking] gives the illusion of companionship without the demands of intimacy†, Kahn quotes her because she is a sociologist. I critically read the quote to try to understand and evaluate withoutShow MoreRelatedHow Friendship Is A Necessary Aspect Of Everyone Human s Life1037 Words   |  5 Pages How I See Friendship Wendy Guindi Azusa Pacific University, University College How I See Friendship Defining friendship is a feeling or an emotion that can be expressed in different kind of ways to one another to feel wanted and important. Friendship can also be defined as a state of being friends, or a friendly feeling. 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