Thursday, December 12, 2019
As new international businesses have developed rapidly over the world, international trading has occurred frequently. Moreover, the importance of cross-cultural leadership has been come out an enormous issue in most countries as well. However, because difficulty of language and cultural differences, senior managers who are overseas for work have some problems with adopting new culture and working with other managers. Therefore, international businesses need a program which could support them to succeed their task. This report will identity two nations from clusters and two dimensions, identity the problems, barriers and advice and gives 3 solutions and recommendations. 2. Definition Learning leadership would be the most important skill for cross-cultural relationship. House at al (2002, p5 in Liddell, 2005, p5) defines leadership as Ã¢â¬Å"the ability of an individual to influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute toward the effectiveness and success of the organization of which they are members. Ã¢â¬ Learning leadership skill encourages the international businesses to achieve their goals. . Clusters and dimensions The GLOBE project classifies 61 countries into 10 clusters. Two different countries: Australia, Korea: has been chosen from project GLOBEÃ¢â¬â¢s clusters to compare because two nations use different language and have different culture. According to Javidan (2005, p62), there are the nine GLOBE cultural dimensions: power distance, in-group collectivism, institutional collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, future orientation, gender egalitarianism, assertiveness, humane orientation, and performance orientation. In Ã¢â¬â group collectivism and uncertainty avoidance have been chosen to discuss between France and China. This is because according to Javidan et al (2005, p62) depicts a summary comparison of south Asian and Nordic European Culture clusters, it has been seen clearly there are enormous differences between two nations. 4. Challenges facing manager Robbins, Bergman and Stagg (1997, p569) define a senior manager as appointed person that have power with acceptable reason and have ability to effect on other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s thinking and behaviors. Javidan et al (2005 p. 9) reports that the role of a senior manager is important to reduce losses of international company. Furthermore, to avoid the losses depends on how well a senior manager understands international transfer of knowledge. Therefore, we need to identify issues, problems and advice between China and France in the two dimensions. 4-1 In-group collectivism Managers and staff tend to be affected by their own culture. It has s een clearly from the figure2 (javidan et al, 2005, p64), two nations, China and France have opposite direction in the dimension of in-group collectivism. Javidan et al ( 2005, p66) illustrates managers who have a high level of in-group collectivist are willing to make close relationship with people in group and tend to avoid a relationship with members who are not part of them. As a result, staffs in China are likely to avoid outsiders while managers in France are trying to make a relationship with the staffs that would cause miscommunications between them. 4-2 Uncertainty avoidance According to the table3 (javidan et al, 2005, p62), China has a low score and France has high scores in the uncertainty avoidance which refers how well people try to orderliness, and are organized. Javidan researched (2005,p68) that a tendency to spend more time and take a lot of attempt on preparing their project is appeared in FranceÃ¢â¬â¢s high uncertainty avoidance cultural. On the other hand, managers in china have a tendency to spend more time during the project and when they find problems, they make a quick decision to change and change to a new idea. In other word, managers with high uncertainty avoidances cultural could make well-planned project and prepare and organize well the project. 5. Analysis and solution As discussed above, there are many problems of international transferring. Javidan (2005, p74) points out that difference of goals between local staff and transferred manager, cultural varies and mismanagement of relationship between managers and staff that comes from a lack of communication with two parties could cause a failure of international trading. He suggests that(2005,p74)both parties need to show clearly their common goals to succeed the transferring, to avoid conflict they need to discuss potential cultural differences each other and proper information for managers to manage relationship between local staffs and senior managers is needed in the new location. 6. Conclusion Cross cultural leadership skill is regard as important knowledge to succeed international transferring, as a new international publishing business has been formed between a European and an Asia. Lack of cross cultural knowledge could lead to a failure international transferring and eventually could result in crucially damaging in the business. Therefore, indentify common goals, understanding culture differences and varies and well- done a management of relationship between local staff and transferred managers are the way in which new international business would succeed and achieve their goals. . Recommendations Ã¢â¬ ¢The international business companies should make a plan to defines common goals and success criteria between local staffs and transferring staff Ã¢â¬ ¢Managers and staffs should discuss and identify cultural differences and cultural varies to find solutions together Ã¢â¬ ¢The international business companies should provide social activities to avoid misman agement of the relationship between managers and staffs
Posted by Unknown at 10:30 AM
Wednesday, December 4, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Marketing Strategy and Plan Different Types. Answer: Introduction: Markets usually consist of different types of buyers and their demands (Sharma and Lambert 2013). Market segmentation is thus needed to be structured to segregate the target market. The company is introducing three new flavours of Ice Cream in Singapore market. Based on the target customers, the market segmentation of Ben Jerry is presented further: Ben Jerry Company has launched the three new flavours of the Ice Creams that are mainly focusing on the target group of customers who are much health conscious. The flavours contain low fat and low sugar. Therefore, the people from all age group can purchase these Ice Creams. The company is focusing on targeting the customers who belong to the high income group. The Ice Cream flavours include different organic ingredients with proper healthy diets. Hence, the price of these ice creams is quite high. People from high income group tend to spend more money on such luxurious desserts. Hence, the high income group would be preferable for selecting the target customers. Behavioural These new flavoured Ice Creams will be distributed among the people who consume the organic and healthier diet in their daily lives. The flavours are added by concentrating on the demands of natural and organic ingredients. People prefer the low fat and low sugar with proportionate natural and organic food ingredients. Therefore, the three flavours of Ice Cream are prepared by keeping focus on such demands. Moreover, the company is also focusing on the segmentation of the people by ensuring the education level. The people who have the knowledge about the importance of healthy diet would prefer these flavours more. Ben Jerry is thus targeting those customers who are better educated and understand the value of the healthy ingredients. 7ps of Marketing Mix Marketing is the evolving discipline followed by the business companies to strengthen the competitive position. The 7Ps of Marketing Mix ensures the different sections that are to be focused during the launch of new products (Luo, Roach and Jiratchot 2016). Ben Jerry even requires concentrating on such sections while opening three outlets in the prime location of Singapore market. The product is the basic component of a marketing mix strategy (Khan 2014). Ben Jerry is going to open three outlets of different flavoured Ice Creams. The people in the Singapore prefer the healthy food ingredients mostly. These flavours are thus made by adding the natural and organic food ingredients with low fat and low sugar. The product is launched for the people who are willing to spend the money on such Ice Cream products with healthy ingredients. Selection of the proper place is necessary for each of the business companies. It is necessary to select a place where the customers are available (Durkin Howcroft and Fairless 2016). Therefore, the Ice Cream product will be launched in the prime location of Singapore. In this location, the majority of the supermarkets, restaurant chains and shopping markets are available where the customers spend their quality time. Moreover, these flavoured Ice Creams will be available in the amusement parks and other ice parlours as well. Selection of the justified pricing structure is essential for launching a new product (Trainor, Krush and Agnihotri 2013). Ben Jerry has set the target group with a high income rate. The target customers are the people who can spend the justified amount on consuming such low fat and low sugar Ice Creams. The price of the Ice Cream is quite expensive since it includes more investments to prepare the flavoured desserts by adding healthy ingredients. The promotional activity is the major platform to draw the attention for the customers and make them aware of the newly launched products (Orozco 2016). In order to launch the new flavoured Ice Creams, Ben Jerry needs to take several promotional strategies. The visual presentation at the supermarket area would be much preferable to make people aware of the health approaches. Broadcasting through the television, internet sites, pamphlets, and hoardings are also quite effective promotional strategies. The company may offer discounts for first few customers. Merger with the restaurant chain would be preferable for the company to promote the new products among the people. People or the target groups are the major concern for a marketing plan Romeo, J.R. and (Dodds 2015). Ben Jerry has decided to offer the flavoured Ice Cream with low fat and low sugar. Hence, people who are much health conscious and from different age group can opt for such desserts. On the other hand, the mixture of the healthy ingredients costs much due to which the company even needs to keep the price higher. Therefore, the people from the high income rate are supposedly the major target customers for the products launched by Ben Jerry. The consumers even much concerned about the delivery services of the products. While launching the new products, it is necessary to keep focus on the proper process of distributing the products (Morrison and Humlen 2015). The supermarket area, the amusement parks, or the shopping areas are the most preferable places where the people can visit Ice Cream Parlours and select their Ice Cream Flavours. The Ice Cream scoops will be used to distribute the products to the customers. The proper presentation of the Ice Cream is needed to be attractive enough to the customers. Physical Evidence Almost each of the products signifies the particular physical evidence. It generally determines the significance of the products that will benefit the customers. The product launch process has to keep the focus on such concerns more specifically. However, Ben Jerry has introduced the three new flavoured Ice Creams that are one the most preferable desserts for people. While preparing the Ice Cream flavours, the company has focused on the concerns of health conscious people in Singapore. The ingredients are thus selected accordingly. These three flavours of Ice Cream contain low sugar and low fat, which are quite healthy for the people who are much conscious about their health. The people who consume the natural and organic foods can also taste these Ice Creams. The Ice Cream producers would give the assurance of a healthy diet. Hence, while launching the new products in the market, it is necessary to concentrate on these concerns. The above marketing mix analysis is providing the in-depth ideas about the method of achieving competitive advantage. The maintenance of these concerns would be preferable to strengthen the competitive position in a market. Moreover, it will be helpful enough in initiating the future sustainability plan as well. Competitive Advantage It is necessary for the company to keep the focus on the unique strategy implementation procedure. Ben Jerry requires concentrating on the effective promotional process that will generate more supports from the target customers. Many people avoid Ice Cream products due to high fat and high calories. However, these flavours are completely fat free and sugar free. The healthier approaches are thus needed to be informed to the people. Broadcasting the products through the events and advertisement media would be beneficial enough to convey the messages to the customers. Accordingly, the company would be able to achieve the competitive advantage. References Durkin, M., Howcroft, B. and Fairless, C., 2016. Product development in higher education marketing.International Journal of Educational Management,30(3), pp.354-369. Khan, M.T., 2014. The concept of'marketing mix'and its elements (a conceptual review paper).International journal of information, business and management,6(2), p.95. Luo, A., Roach, S. and Jiratchot, C., 2016. The effect of the 7Ps of the marketing mix on air freight customer satisfaction and repurchase intention.Journal of Supply Chain Management,9(2). Morrison, G. and Humlen, A., 2015. People powered brands: How companies can inspire consumer action.Journal of Brand Strategy,4(3), pp.201-216. Orozco, D., 2016. Using social media in business disputes.MIT Sloan management review,57(2), pp.33. Romeo, J.R. and Dodds, W.B., 2015. The effects of brand quality and price on the evaluation of brand extensions. InProceedings of the 1996 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference(pp. 282-288). Springer International Publishing. Sharma, A. and Lambert, D.M., 2013. Segmentation of markets based on customer service.International Journal of Physical Distribution Logistics Management. Trainor, K., T. Krush, M. and Agnihotri, R., 2013. Effects of relational proclivity and marketing intelligence on new product development.Marketing Intelligence Planning,31(7), pp.788-806.
Posted by Unknown at 10:11 PM
Thursday, November 28, 2019
Elizabethan Era Social Classes Paper Elizabethan Family Life Family life during the Elizabethan period was largely determined by what class the family was in. As in how rich the family was. But the main exception to this was religion. It didnt matter whether the family was wealthy, poor, young or old, each family was expected to attend a protestant church service every Sunday. Each family member also wore different clothes. A wealthy family led a completely different life to one of a poor family and men led very different lives to women. The men had quite a lot of control over the lives of the women in the family during the Elizabethan times. The women were expected to always be ready to do whatever the men told them to do and were supposed to obey the men in all aspects of their life. In their religion, disobedience was seen as a crime or wrongdoing. The whole purpose for women to get married was to Increase the position and wealth of her own family and then to produce children. Love was not really considered as a reason to get married back then but may come In the marriage. Male children were preferred back In those times. There were no careers available to women and the girls did not receive an education either, so most of the females werent able to read or write. We will write a custom essay sample on Elizabethan Era Social Classes specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Elizabethan Era Social Classes specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Elizabethan Era Social Classes specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer It was the womens job to keep the house tidy and in good shape. It was also the responsibility of the women to keep their family healthy by producing medicines from their available herbs. The Elizabethan men led a life of power, completely opposite to the women and much more favorable. The men made all the decisions and the women were expected to obey them. The men supported the family by going to work and they had a wide variety of occupations. The men were expected to Improve the positions of family members too by working with wealthier people and families than their own and patronizing with them. Boys had an education and went to school for 6 days a week. This meant they were literate, unlike the girls. When tobacco was introduced, smoking was very popular among men. The lives of the children during the Elizabethan times wasnt too different from how it is today. The children of the family had to serve and obey the adults of the family, including women. They were raised to obey and respect their parents. Children were very precious during the Elizabethan period because infant mortality was high. Just like the 21st century, children had toys to play with for entertainment. Some of those toys Included dolls, toy soldiers, hobbyhorses and many others. But unlike the Elizabethan times, children now have PCs and play stations to entertain themselves. Children were split in classes like the adults. The more high-class children were more punished more severely for bad behavior than the lower class children. The homes back in the Elizabethan period depended on how rich the family was. What the family did in and outside of the home was also determined by what time of day it was. Most of the Elizabethan houses were half built out of timber with black ND white styles The interiors had separate rooms and usually levels. The walls were made of wattle, which were daubed with mortar and later had whitewash applied to it. For an upper or middle class family, windows were constructed from glass, like today, but if the family was lower class then windows became wooden shutters. The houses had thatched roofs made of straw or reeds. Rushes were used to cover the floor for most families but marble or slate was used only for the very wealthy families. The chimneys were very high and made of stone. The houses didnt have running water so it had to be obtained through water pumps, owing this caused many people to get typhoid. Heat was produced by fires and lighting from candles and torches. Bubonic plague was spread easily as the thatched roofs made good homes for rats and mice (from which the disease was spread). The Elizabethan home was where families were able to find comfort. Education during the Elizabethan times was mainly for the boys of the upper and middle classes and girls of the upper class. Girls were usually not allowed in schools. The simplest form of education started at what was called a Petty School. This school was conducted for boys from 5 7 years of age. This type of school wasnt actually held in a school building but the teachers house. These petty schools ran for only a small fee and were conducted by a local and well- educated housewife. Reading and writing English and lessons about behavior were taught at these schools, as they were considered to be the fundamentals of education and must be taught early in childhood. From 7 14 years of age, boys not in the upper class would attend a grammar school. They were taught by ushers (senior students at grammar school) from 7 10 years of GE. They learnt slightly more advanced English writing and speaking skills and basic Latin. When the boys turned 10 they left their ushers to be taught by masters in more Latin, literature, Greek study, religious education and simple math. After grammar school, the boys left for university at an early age of 14. People ate different things in the Elizabethan period depending on their wealth and social status. During those times, meat was thought to be a luxury enjoyed by the rich. The poor would not have had much food varieties but the rich had plenty to choose from! Old eat are lamb, beef, mutton, bacon, fish, carrot, leeks and fruits. Many different kinds of food were introduced in the Elizabethan period, such as tomatoes, kidney beans and potatoes. Tutors also enjoyed eating dessert, obviously. They ate pastries, tarts, cakes, custard and cream. The food in those times werent actually too different compared to what we eat now. Family was very important back then and still is. Although life as a family was very strict and standardized, it was also vital to have close bonds as a family and to have good respect and obedience towards each other.
Posted by Unknown at 7:46 AM
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Legals Of Health Care Essays Legals Of Health Care Paper Legals Of Health Care Paper Medical Profession today is Ã¢â¬ËaccountableÃ¢â¬â¢ to the society. i. e. obliged to the laws regulating the professional activity. This Ã¢â¬ËaccountabilityÃ¢â¬â¢ is usually spelt out in Ã¢â¬Å"Patient Care DocumentsÃ¢â¬ established by hospital associations and medical associations or councils of every country (Suzanne, 2004). In addition, medical profession has defined its standards of accountability through a formal code of Ethics. PatientÃ¢â¬â¢s perceptions of health care, particularly disagreements and researches of various kinds with doctors have caught the attention of every one since 1980s. These disagreements have turned often into legal complaints (Ellen Annandale 1998). These disagreements turned legal complaints lead to long medical litigations. Rights for advance directives and doctrines such as informed consent have created a new approach to medical litigations. THE CASE STUDY The Case of 70 years old Mrs. Sparza, is classic case of a competent patientÃ¢â¬â¢s legal right in giving informed consent and advance directives. Informed consent refers to legal rules that prescribe behaviors for physicians in their interactions with patients based on the ethical doctrine rooted in the value of autonomy that facilitates patients right to self-determination. It is an interpersonal process whereby practitioners interact with patients to select an appropriate course of action. Informed consent means that tests, treatments and medications have been explained to the person, as well as outcomes, possible complications and alternative procedures before the treatment and this consent is documented. There is no second opinion on the fact that only a competent individual can give an informed consent. But the concept of competence is broad with moral, medical and legal implications. The case of Nancy Curzon (Suzanne, 2004) throws more light on the legal implications of most medical decisions. Nancy Curzon was a young woman involved in a car crash after which she remained in a persistent vegetative state in U. S. A. Inspite of a three year legal battle of her family members to have her feeding tube removed to let her die, The Supreme court ruled that Ã¢â¬Ëa state requires a Ã¢â¬ËClear and Convincing evidenceÃ¢â¬â¢ of the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s wishes for withdrawal of life-support. This gave rise to the legislations, which encourage people to prepare advance directives in which they indicate their wishes concerning the treatment and care to be provided if they become incapacitated. Advance directivesÃ¢â¬â¢ are legal documents that specify a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s wishes before hospitalization and provide the necessary information for tough decision-making situations. The Advance directive is usually composed of a Living will. A Living will is a medical directive issued by an individual with sound mind. This documents treatment preferences and provides instructions of care. This is often accompanied by a Ã¢â¬ËProxy directiveÃ¢â¬â¢. Proxy directive is the appointment and authorization of another individual to make medical directives on behalf of the person who created an advanced directive when he/she is no longer able to speak for himself/herself. This is known as Health Care Power of Attorney or Ã¢â¬ËDurable Power of AttorneyÃ¢â¬â¢. The doctors and health care unit in this case are legally liable because; They have forced patient to give consent to be operated on both her eyes against her wishes and the doctors should have terminated her life as per the advance directive and durable power of attorney. It is worthy to mention that euthanasia and physician assisted death are permissible under law in the state of Oregon. Such medical disagreements turned legal complaints lead to long medical litigations. REFERENCE Ann J. Zwemer, Ã¢â¬Å"Professional Adjustments and Ethics for Nurses in IndiaÃ¢â¬ . , 6th edn, B. 1 Publications, India, 1995. Annandale, E, Ã¢â¬Å"The malpractice crisis and the doctor-patient relationshipÃ¢â¬ Sociology of Health and Illness 11:1-23, 1989. Annandale, E and Hunt, K Ã¢â¬Å"Accounts of Disagreements with doctorsÃ¢â¬ , Social Science and Medicine 1:119-129, 1998. Brunner suddharthÃ¢â¬â¢s, Suzanne C. Smeltzer, Brenda. G, Ã¢â¬Å"Textbook of Medical Surgical NursingÃ¢â¬ , 10th edn Lippincott U. S. A, 2004. Brennan, T, et. al, Ã¢â¬Å"Incidence of adverse events and negligence in hospitalized patients: the results of the Harvard Medical Practice StudyÃ¢â¬ , New England Journal of Medicine 324: 370-76, 1991. Bosk, C, Ã¢â¬Å"Forgive and Remember: Managing medical failureÃ¢â¬ , Chicago University Press, Chicago, 1979.
Posted by Unknown at 3:20 PM
Thursday, November 21, 2019
The Lust for Blood - Movie Review Example The lust for blood from an aggrieved criminal who goes on a killing spree is the main theme behind the episode that will be reviewed in this essay. The producerÃ¢â¬â¢s concept of depicting two men that have been bludgeoned to death in the beginning of the film is the epitome of brutality as a result of blood lust. The murder took place near a hospital one evening in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The BAU agents, Hotch, Rossi, Prentiss and Reid are called in to solve the case. The two dead bodies had been placed in such a way that showed the perpetrator (s) was remorseful about the act. For the perpetrator to have been able to kill the two physically strong men, he or she must have been physically strong as well. The unsub must have been somebody who was good at fighting. The victims found beaten in the same manner that the perpetrator had bludgeoned the first two men shows that it is the same person who has been committing these murders. The manner that these subsequent deaths have be en executed shows that he is no longer remorseful for the killings. There is a very high probability that the perpetrator will strike again. Viewers are left in suspense, wondering when and where he will strike next. Analytically, the murders are being executed by someone who enjoys killing people. He is killing them very precisely and easily. The subsequent victims are found to have been beaten in a very organized and thorough way, indicating that the criminal is knowledgeable about fights. He must be a fighter or boxer because of the nature of execution of the deaths. The BAU ventures into the boxing and fighting scene all over Philadelphia so as to find the connection to the string of deaths. The search for the killer leads the BAU team to venture more and more into the boxing scene so as to find out who has been executing these deaths near the hospital. This was a clever move because the killer must have been a boxer. Later on in the program, it emerges that the killer is a prof essionally trained boxer, Jimmy who is killing people because of his presumed blood lust. HotchÃ¢â¬â¢s encounter with a lady named Beth shows that he is finally interested in love again for the first time since his wife Haley died. He has been holding on to the death of his wife and has finally decided to let go of the past and move on. In regard to this, he is quoted saying, Ã¢â¬Å"Some of us think holding on makes us strong but sometimes its letting goÃ¢â¬ . This can be said to be after he has finally made the resolution to move on with his life and stop mourning the death of his wife. The case that the team was working on was taking too long but the change in direction of the movie makes it more interesting when Hotch meets this girl Beth and finally considers to move on. The introduction of Beth into the scene is a great strategy because the suspense of wanting to know whether HotchÃ¢â¬â¢s new love will fail or succeed keeps viewers glued to the screen. The conversation be tween Hotch and Rossi below shows that Hotch is interested in Beth Ã¢â¬Å"Rossi:Ã (discussing Beth with Hotch)Ã Is she cute? Hotchner: Yes, she is, but I need to be focused on my training. I don't need to be distracted. Rossi: Yes, you should be. Distracted is good. What's her name? Hotchner: Beth. Rossi: I like it. And you know what they say about riding a bicycle. Hotchner: Who's getting a bicycle?
Posted by Unknown at 7:40 AM
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
One Organized Crime Questions - Essay Example In 1917, DÃ¢â¬â¢Aquila efficiently managed to suck up the Comorra gangs. In 1918, Comorra had assassinated the leader (Benson & French, 2008). Morello. Later, after many atrocious activities of these criminal gangs, Carlo Gambino became boss, owing to the death of Anastasia, a former leader in the early 1950s (Benson & French, 2008). Gambino then secretly conspired against another leader, Genovese, who was detained, and handed a 15-year imprisonment. At this time, the Gambino family emerged as a significant gang family within New York. Currently, the gang is highly controlled, with three key members as the heads. These include Anthony Gurino, Giovanni Gambino, and Joseph Juliano (Benson & French, 2008). Danny Leo serves as the interim boss. The street boss and the underboss are Liborio and Venero respectively. The gang estimated number of members rises slightly above 200, with various associates across the US and regionally (Benson & French, 2008). The gang still exists, albeit the apprehension and sentencing of numerous
Posted by Unknown at 9:45 AM
Monday, November 18, 2019
Reconstruction for Assigned Reading - Essay Example The beauty of this partnership is that private investors by virtue of shouldering upfront costs have a powerful influence in terms of incentives to ensure timely completion of projects. The overriding factor of the PPPÃ¢â¬â¢s is that they have a customer service ethic that government operated roadways lack. These PPPÃ¢â¬â¢s enable investors to profit primarily toll revenue, though not highly popular, is better than higher taxes and more government spending. The toll-funded roads are a noble idea since they will primarily regulate congestion on the roads. By increasing the toll during peak hours and decreasing it during off Ã¢â¬â peak hours, motorists will save much time since they will not be stuck in traffic. This will in turn reduce stress among motorist and save fuel. This would result in an improved economy. Further, the environment will not be polluted since auto emissions are higher in heavy traffic and significantly lower when traffic eases. Although PPPÃ¢â¬â¢s are not new in America, they remain an under-used engine for transportation infrastructure investments. Greater public education about the economic and environmental benefits of PPPÃ¢â¬â¢s is needed while federal action is also needed to encourage states to employ the use of PPPÃ¢â¬â¢s in transportation
Posted by Unknown at 1:50 AM